Long term complications of diabetes are increasingly emerging. The longer you get diabetes—and the less your blood glucose is controlled—the higher the chance of complications. Eventually, symptoms of diabetes can be life threatening or disabling. Potential complications shall include:
- Heart artery disorder. Diabetes significantly raises the likelihood of multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary heart disease like heart attack, chest pain, stroke and artery narrowing. If you do have diabetes, you are more likely to develop stroke or heart disease .
- Damage to the nerve (neuropathy). Excessive sugar can damage the walls of small blood vessels that feed your nerves, particularly in your feet. This may cause numbness, tingling, burning, or pain that typically starts at the bottom of the foot or fingers and progresses upwards.
- Untreated, you may lose some ability to feel in the affected limbs. Digestion-related nerve damage may create problems with vomiting,nausea, constipation or diarrhea. It can lead to sexual dysfunction for men.
- Harm to the kidney (nephropathy). The kidneys include millions of small clusters of blood vessels (glomeruli) that remove waste from the bloodstream. Diabetes may cause damage to this valuable filtering mechanism. Serious damage may lead to renal failure or permanent end-stage kidney problems, that might need dialysis or kidney transplantation.
- Harm to the eye (retinopathy). Diabetes can affect the retinal blood vessels , possibly loss of vision. Diabetes also raises the likelihood of other extreme vision disorders, like glaucoma and cataracts .
- Damage to the foot. Nerve damage in the legs or inadequate blood circulation to the legs raises the risk of various complications in the legs. If this is Untreated, wounds and blisters can lead to severe infections, which are often poorly healed. These conditions can ultimately involve an amputation of the foot toe or leg.
- The conditions of the skin. Diabetes can increase susceptibility to skin issues, particularly fungal and bacterial infections.
- Hearing disabilities. Hearing issues are most common in patients with diabetes problem.
- Alzheimer’s. Type 2 diabetes can raise the risk of dementia, like Alzheimer’s. The lower your blood glucose level, the higher the risk tends to be. However there are hypotheses as to how these conditions could be related, none has even been proven.
- Depression. Symptoms of depression are common among people in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Stress can affect the treatment of diabetes.
Common complication of gestational diabetes
Many women who may have gestational diabetes give birth to healthy babies. Even so, uncontrolled and untreated blood sugar levels may create issues for the mother and the baby.
Complications with the baby may happen as a condition of gestational diabetes, such as:
- Excessive development. Extra glucose will pass through the placenta, which causes the pancreas of the baby to produce over insulin. It can trigger the baby to grow too big . Very big babies are more expected to need the birth of a C-section.
- Low blood glucose levels. Often infants of mothers with gestational diabetes experience hypoglycemia after the birth since their own insulin secretion is large. Prompt feeding and occasionally intravenous glucose treatment will make the baby’s blood glucose levels normal.
- Diabetes of type 2 later age. Babies of moms with gestational diabetes are at greater risk of developing obesity problem and diabetes later in life.
- Death. Untreated gestational diabetes may lead to the death of a baby, before or soon after birth.
Complications in the mother can also happen as a condition of gestational diabetes, such as:
- Preeclampsia . This disorder is leading to high blood tension, excessive protein mostly in urine, including swelling in the feet and legs. Preeclampsia can lead to serious or life-threatening problems for both mom and baby.
- Consequent gestational diabetes. When you have had gestational diabetes with one pregnancy, you are more probably to get it again for the next pregnancy. You’re even more likely to have diabetes type 2 diabetes—as you grow older.
Prediabetes can evolve into type 2 diabetes.