To know diabetes, first of all, you need to know how sugar is usually handled in the body.
How insulin is working
Hormone called insulin that comes from a gland located below and behind the stomach (pancreas).
- The pancreas produces the insulin in the blood.
- Insulin flows, allowing sugar to move into the cell.
- Insulin decreases the amount of sugar in the blood.
- As the blood glucose levels decreases, so does your pancreatic insulin secretion.
The function of glucose in the Blood
Glucose—sugar—is the energy source for cells that produce muscles and some other tissues.
- Glucose comes in two main sources: food and the liver.
- Sugar is ingested in to bloodstream, which also reaches the cells using insulin.
- The liver saves and produces glucose for you.
If your glucose levels are low, such as when you haven’t consumed for a while, the liver breaks down glycogen into glucose to maintain your blood sugar levels within a range of normal.
Type 1 diabetes causes
The precise trigger of type 1 diabetes is not known. What is understood is that the immune system – usually battles dangerous bacteria or viruses—is targeting and killing the insulin produce cells in the pancreas. This provides you with no or little insulin. Rather than being transferred to the cells, glucose builds up in the bloodstream.
Type 1 is believed to be caused by a number of genetic vulnerability and environmental conditions, but the precise existence of these factors remains uncertain. Weight is not considered to be a factor in type 1 diabetes.
The causes of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes
With prediabetes—which can progress to type 2, the cells become insulin resistant, and the pancreas cannot make enough insulin to resolve this resistance. Rather than going into your cells where you really need glucose, glucose builds up in the blood.
The precise explanation for this is unclear, but it is claimed that genetic and environmental factors both play a significant role in the progression of type 2 diabetes. Overweight is closely related to the development of t2d, however not everyone of type 2 is obese.
Trigger of gestational diabetes
Through pregnancy, the placenta releases hormones to keep you pregnant. Such hormones make the cells more insulin-resistant.
Usually, the pancreas responds by generating enough amount of insulin to resolve this resistance. But often you can’t hold your pancreas up. If this occurs, even less glucose will get into your cells, and too much will remain in your blood, leading to gestational diabetes.